DISCLAIMER and NOTE ON SOURCES - PLEASE READ

All information in these pages reflect an ongoing effort of documentation by 1856.org. The information gathered is both current and historical. Most of the information comes from primary sources preserved in the state archives of Massachusetts and local libraries, some of it comes from secondary sources such as books and articles. Whenever possible, these sources are identified. Usually ALL materials are copyrighted and permission is required before reproduction. We ask you kindly that if you use the information in these pages for your own research, that you do so with respect to the original sources and the usual procedures of citation as described below. If you are unclear about a source, please contact us by email. We always try to answer all questions and comments, and are grateful to hear from you. Likewise, if you discover an error, please do not hesitate to point it out.

WHY ACKNOWLEDGE SOURCES?
Citations are a courtesy to the reader, who may share your interest. Citations allow you to acknowledge those authors who made possible particular aspects of your work. Failure to provide adequate citations constitutes plagiarism. Citations, by delineating your intellectual debts, also draw attention to the originality and legitimacy of your own ideas. As one historian of the footnote has observed, citations "confer authority" on the writer. (Anthony Grafton, "The Footnote: A Curious History", Harvard UP, 1997, p.8) By citing sources, then, you demonstrate your integrity and skill as a responsible participant in the conversation of scholarship.

CITATION FORMATS AND STYLES
Preferred formats for citations may vary among different scholarly disciplines and departments. There are three citation formats that are used most widely: the parenthetical format used especially in the social sciences (Hurston, Dust Tracks 14); the author-date format widely used across the social and natural sciences (Hurston, 1984, p. 33); and the note format (footnote or endnote) used by both scientists and humanists (endnotes appear after the text, starting on a new pages; footnotes appear at the bottom of pages where their markers occur). In the research conducted by 1856.org the parenthetical format is used. If you have questions about the source or how to find it, cite it, or expand upon it, send us an email.

PHOTOGRAPHY CREDIT
Before using any photograph you see here for your own research or use, please contact 1856.org. All current photographs are courtesy of a living photographer who would like to be adequately identified if his picture is used by others. All historic photographs have a source that should be cited if used elsewhere. Failure to give proper credit constitutes plagiarism. Again, simply contact 1856.org and ask for permission. That way there will not be any copyright issues in the future.


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